The US has sanctioned two Turkish ministries and three senior government officials in response to the country’s military offensive in northern Syria.
President Donald Trump also phoned his Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan to demand an immediate truce, Vice-President Mike Pence said.
Mr Pence said he would travel to the region “as quickly as possible”.
The Syrian army deployment followed a deal with Kurdish-led forces, who until last week were US allies.
Turkey says its offensive aims to push Kurdish forces from the border region and establish what the government in Ankara describes as a “safe zone”.
With a “safe zone” reaching about 30km (20 miles) into Syria, Turkey wants to resettle up to two million Syrian refugees currently on its territory.
Many of them are not Kurds and critics warn this could lead to ethnic cleansing of the local Kurdish population.